Biofuels and Biorefineries
As the fact is known that fossil fuels are going to last for only 100 more years, the best renewable alternative way is biofuel. The synthesis requires biological processes, such as anaerobic digestion, fermentation, transesterification. Biofuels can be extracted directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. This is different from other renewable energy sources, biomass can be directly converted into bio fuels using various substrates. Due to a lot of disadvantages in the conventional methods of recovering oil there is a need of another option and in the search for environment friendly solutions, growing attention has been given to biotechnology such as the use of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).The MEOR constitute injection of microorganisms with necessary nutrients into the oil well, and under favorable conditions microbial population grows and their metabolic products produces oil.
- Third and fourth generation bio fuels